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Metal Injection Molding Materials

Materials

The Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process can produce a wide variety of structural materials that are common in military, medical, automotive, industrial, and aerospace applications. Metal injection molding's raw material is called feedstock. Feedstock is a mixture of powder metal and polymer specifically blended to create different metal parts.

Metal Injection Molding materials have been designed to achieve high densities, withstand the complex debinding and sintering process. Our materials also mirror alloys developed for wrought products. The availability of metal powders facilitates the formulation of modified MIM alloys designed for specific applications.

Metal Injection Molding Materials

APP Material Expertise

Material selection is a vital step in the design process. If you want your final product to outperform the competition, APP has got you covered. We offer:

  • Onsite P.E Metallurgist and Material Scientists/Engineers
  • Ability to manufacture customized feedstocks in-house
  • Technical guidance for selecting powders
  • Intellectual property development
  • Fast reaction time for alloy/shrink modification
  • Mechanical properties exceeding MPIF Standard 35
  • Ability to process BASF/Catamold® Feedstock
  • Diverse alloy selection from same tool
  • In-house metallurgy carbon testing

Metal Powder Feedstock

Metal injection molding feedstock is manufactured by mixing fine metal powder with waxes and polymers to create the foundation to what will become the MIM part. Pelletized Feedstock is then injected into the molding machines and molds to create a green part.

APP has the unique ability to formulate and manufacture proprietary metal powder feedstock specifically designed for our metal injection molding process. Backed metallurgical science, the mechanical properties of mim materials developed by APP meet and exceed MPIF Standard 35 properties.

Our metallurgical expertise also gives us the ability to process off-the-shelf BASF/ Catamold® feedstock. The capability to process both in-house and off-the-shelf feedstock, gives the customer the ability to seamlessly transfer a mold developed with a competitor's process.


MIM Alloys

Engineers turn to metal injection molding because of the many material options available. APP manufactures and stocks a variety of alloys such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, tool steels, soft-magnetic steels, and tungsten. The table below is an overview of available MIM materials, applications, and features.

Material Family Application Specific Alloys Specific Feature
Stainless Steel Medical, electronic, hardware, sporting goods, aerospace, consumer products
17-4PH
316L
420, 440C
310
Strength, heat treatable
Corrosion resistance, ductility, nonmagnetic
Hardness, wear resistance, heat treatable
Corrosion and heat resistance
Low-alloy Steel Hardware, bearings, races, consumer goods, machine parts
1000 Series
4000 Series
52, 100
Case hardenable
General purpose
High wear resistance
Tool Steel Wood and metal cutting tools
M2/M4
T15
M42
S7
61-66 HRC
63-68 HRC
65-70 HRC
55-60 HRC
Bioimplantable Implantable, Prosthetic replacements (hips, knees, etc.) bone plates, screws, rods, heart valves
F-75 (ASTM F2886)
MP35N (ASTM F562)
High strength, superior corrosion resistance, non-magnetic, biocompatibility
Titanium Medical, aerospace, consumer products
Ti
Ti-6AI-4V
Light Weight
Light weight, high strength
Copper Electronic, thermal management
Cu
W-Cu, Mo-Cu
High thermal and electrical conductivity
High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion
Magnetic Electronic solenoids, armatures, relay
Fe-3%Si
Fe-50%Ni
Fe-50%Co
Low core losses and high electrical resistivity
High permeability and low coercive field
Highest magnetic saturation
Tungsten Military, electronic, sporting goods
W
W heavy alloy
Density
Density and toughness
Hardmetals Cutting and wear applications
WC-10Co
WC-10Co
Higher hardness
Higher toughness

MIM STAINLESS STEELS*

As a leader in metal injection molding for the last 20 years, we pride ourselves on our material expertise. This guide walks you through typical material properties for MIM stainless steels. Need help choosing the best option? Let our application experts take a closer look. Call us at 814-342-5895 or email us at engineer@4-app.com

Features And Applications
Microstructure Grade Alloy Features Applications
Precipitation Hardening 17-4PH Strength, Heat Treatable, Corrosion Resistance Firearms, Medical Devices (mechanical joints, suturing saws, wound forceps), Hand & Power Tools, Sporting Goods, Electronics, Aerospace, Automotive, Fiber Optic Connectors, and Consumer Goods.
Austenitic 316L Superior Corrosion Resistance, Ductility, Non-magnetic
Martensitic 420, 440C Hardness, Wear Resistance, Heat Treatable
Ferritic 430L Magnetic Stainless Steel with Resistance to Atmospheric Corrosion and General Oxidation
Alloy Composition
Element MIM 17-4PH SS MIM 316L MIM 420 MIM 440 MIM 430L
C 0.07 max .03 max .15-.4 .9-1.25 .05 (max)
Si 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max
Cr 15.5-17.5 16-18 12-14 16-18 16-18
Mo - 2-3 - .75 max -
Mn 1.0 max 2.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max
Fe Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal.
Ni 3-5 10-14 - .6 max -
Cu 3-5 - - - -
Nb 0.15-0.45 - - - -
Typical Material Properties
Material Density (g/cm3) YS (MPa) UTS (MPa) Elongation (%) Unnotched Charpy impact energy (J) Macro Hardness Young's Modulus (GPa)
MIM 17-4 PH 7.6 740 900 6 100 27-32 HRC 190
MIM 17-4 PH (H900) 7.6 1100 1200 4 100 38-42 HRC 190
MIM 316L 7.6 180 520 40 140 67 HRB 190
MIM 420 (heat treated) 7.4 1200 1370 - 30 44 HRB 190
MIM 440 (heat treated) 7.5 1600 1250 1 4 55 HRC 190
MIM 430L 7.5 230 410 25 110 65 HRB 190

* Handbook of Metal Injection Molding, 2nd ed. 2019. D.F. Heaney, Founder and CEO of Advanced Powder Products. ISBN:9780081021521

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MIM LOW-ALLOY STEELS*

As a leader in metal injection molding for the last 20 years, we pride ourselves on our material expertise. This guide walks you through typical material properties for MIM low-alloy steels. Low-alloy steels exhibit superior mechanical properties to plain carbon steels due to the addition of alloying elements. MIM low-carbon steels can achieve higher densities and greater mechanical properties over castings. Need help choosing the best option? Let our application experts take a closer look. Call us at 814-342-5895 or email us at engineer@4-app.com

Features And Applications
Grade Alloy Features Applications
2200, 2700, 8620, 9310 Case Hardenable Firearms, Consumer Goods, General, Industrial, Wood and Metal Cutting
400 Series General Purpose
52100 High Wear Resistance
Alloy Composition
Element MIM 4605 MIM 4140 MIM 4340 MIM 2700 (FN08) MIM 2200 (Fe-2Ni) MIM 52100 MIM 8620 MIM 9310 MIM 430L
C .4-.6 .3-.5 .3-.5 .1 max .1 max .8-1.2 .15-.23 .2 max .05 (max)
Si 1.0 max .6 max .5 max 1.0 max 1.0 max - 1.0 max - 1.0 max
Cr - .8-1.2 .6-1.2 - - 1.3-1.6 .4-.6 .3-.8 16-18
Mo .2-.5 .2-.3 .5 max .5 max .5 max - .15-.25 .1-.25 -
Mn - 1.0 max .8 max - - .25-.45 .7-.9 - 1.0 max
Fe Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal. Bal.
Ni 1.5-2.5 - 1.25-2.0 6.5-8.5 1.5-2.5 - .4-.7 2.5-3.5 -
Cu - - - - - .025 max .035 max .025 max -
Nb - - - - - .025 max .040 max .025 -
Typical Material Properties
Material Density (g/cm3) YS (MPa) UTS (MPa) Elongation (%) Unnotched Charpy impact energy (J) Macro Hardness Case Hardened Young's Modulus (GPa)
MIM 4605 HT 7.55 1480 1650 1 55 43-48 HRC - 210
MIM 4140 HT 7.5 1200 1600 5 75 43-48 HRC - 200
MIM 4340 HT 7.5 1100 1200 6 - 40-45 - -
MIM 2700 7.6 250 400 12 175 69 HRB 50-56 HRC 190
MIM 2200 7.6 125 280 35 135 45 HRB 56-62 HRC 190
MIM 51200 HT 7.5 1100 1500 2 - 55-62 HRC - -
MIM 8620 7.5 130 320 25 - 100 HRB - -
MIM 9310 7.5 350 540 15 - 375 HV1 56-62 HRC -

* Handbook of Metal Injection Molding, 2nd ed. 2019. D.F. Heaney, Founder and CEO of Advanced Powder Products. ISBN:9780081021521

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MIM TOOL STEELS*

As a leader in metal injection molding for the last 20 years, we pride ourselves on our material expertise. This guide walks you through typical material properties for MIM Tool Steels. Tool steels are a family of steels that contain dispersed carbides in a hardened steel matrix. These steels are used in high impact, metal cutting, and many other hot and cold wear applications. Need help choosing the best option? Let our application experts take a closer look. Call us at 814-342-5895 or email us at engineer@4-app.com

Features And Applications
Grade Hardness Alloy Features Applications
S7 55-60 HRC High Impact Resistance, High Toughness Firearms, Consumer Goods, General Industrial, Cutting Tools.
A2 60-65 HRC Good Toughness, Moderate Wear Resistance
M2/M4 60-65 HRC Very Good Wear Resistance, Good Toughness
T15 60-65 HRC Extremely Good Wear Resistance
Alloy Composition
Alloy C Mn Si Cr W V Ni Mo Co Cu Fe
MIM S7 .45 - .65 .9 max .2 - 1.0 3.0 - 3.5 - - - 1.3 - 1.8 - - Bal
MIM A2 .95 - 1.05 1.00 max .5 max 4.75 - 5.5 - .15 - .5 - .9 - 1.4 - - Bal
MIM M2 .8 - 0.9 - - 3.5 - 4.5 5.5 - 6.5 1.5 - 2.2 - 4.5 - 5.5 - - Bal
MIM M4 1.25 - 1.4 .15 - .4 .2 - .45 3.75 - 4.75 5.25 - 6.65- 3.75 - 4.5 - 4.25 - 5.5 - - Bal
Typical Material Properties
Material Density (g/cm3) YS (MPa) UTS (MPa) Elongation (%) Unnotched Charpy impact energy (J) Macro Hardness Case Hardened Young's Modulus (GPa)
MIM S7 HT 7.4 1550 1750 2 - 45-53 HRC - -
MIM A2 HT 7.5 - - - - 55-63 HRC - -
MIM M2 HT 7.9 - - - - 55-65 HRC - -
MIM M4 HT 7.9 - - - - 60-65 HRC - -
MIM T15 HT 8.2 - - - - 60-65 HRC - -
Tool Steel Comparison Chart

* All figures used with permission from the Handbook of Metal Injection Molding, 2nd ed 2019. D.F. Heaney, founder of Advanced Powder Products. ISBN: 9780081021521

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